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CITRINE, TOURMALINE AND AMETRINE

CITRINE

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 CITRINE....THE GEMSTONE IN GOLD SHADE

Citrine is the Birthstone for the month of November, and the Gemstone representing the 13th Wedding Anniversary.

The name is derived from the French word, citron, meaning 'lemon' and the color is associated with light-heartedness and cheerfulness. It is also believed that it helps one connect with the spirit. Citrine is often given as a symbol of hope, health, and fidelity.

In ancient times, Citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts. Although the darker orange colors of Citrine, sometimes called Madeira Citrine after the color of the wine, has generally been the most valued color, in modern times, many people prefer the bright lemony shades which mix better with pastel colors. Citrine is generally more inexpensive  than Amethyst and is also available in a wide range of calibrated sizes and shapes, including very large sizes.

Citrine is one of the most affordable Gemstones, thaks to the durability and availability of this golden Quartz. Citrine includes yellow to gold to orange-brown shades of transparent Quartz. Sunny and affordable, Citrine can brighten almost any jewelry style, blending specially well with the yellow gleam of polished gold.

Most Citrine is mined in Brazil. Supply of Citrine is good from the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, particularly from the Serra mine. which is producing 300 kilos a month of hammered goods. The Iraa mine produces ans additional 100 kilos a month of hammered goods.

TOURMALINE

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TOURMALINE....A UNIQUE SPLENDOUR OF COLORS

Tourmaline is another Birthstone for the month of October and the Gemstone representing the 8th Wedding Anniversary.

Tourmalines are precious stones displaying a unique splendour of colors. According to an ancient Egyptian legend, this is the result of the fact that on the long way from the Earth's heart up towards the Sun. Tourmalines travelled along a rainbow...and on it's way it collected all the colors of the rainbow. This is why nowadays it is called the "Rainbow Gemstone". The name Tourmaline, has been derived from  Singhalese expression "Tura Mali" which translate as - stone of mixed colors. The very name already refers to the unique spectrum of colors displaying by the gemstones, which is second to none in the realm of precious stones. Tourmalines are red and green, range from blue to yellow.. Quite often, they show two or more colors and are cherished for their parti- or multi-colored appearance. There are Tourmalines  which change their colors from daylight to artificial light , others display chattoyance. No Tourmalines exactly resemble another one - this Gemstone shows many faces and thus excellently suited to match all moods and tempers. It does not come as a surprise that ever since ancient days it has been attributed with magical powers. Tourmaline is supposed to be a specially powerful influence on love and friendship, lending them permanence and stability. I was also once believed that it protects the wearer against bad decisions, many dangers, and misfortune. It also known to attract friends and lovers. Pink Tourmaline promotes female balance and protection, as green Tourmaline promotes the same among males.

Yellow Tourmaline is a real miracle of color. It not only comes in green, red, blue, yellow colorless, and black, but also as a multi-colored or color changing Gemstone  or as a Cat's Eye. Furthermore, there innumerable mixtures of color in all nuances and depths, and some very unusual too. Until recently however, there were no pure yellows in the rich color range of the 'gemstone of the rainbow', as this is also known.  Most of the yellow Tourmalines found thus far had a slight tinge of brown. But the Tourmaline not only has many different colors, it is also for a surprise now and then, as an example, at the beginning of the 1990's , when some fantastic blue-green to turquoise Tourmalines suddenly arrived on the market from a find in Paraiba, Brazil.

Meanwhile, this colorful gemstone has taken the world by surprise again with another new variety, and this time, it is a yellow one - from southern East Africa. In Malawi, a gemstone deposit with some wonderful yellow Tourmalines was discovered in the autumn of the year 2000. The fresh, spring-like yellow of these Tourmalines is clear and pure and has a very fine hint of green. Under the trade name 'Canary' the new Tourmaline variety has now begun to circulate. This particularly interesting kind of Tourmaline, as its fine traces of Magnesium are responsible for the electifying yellow color. Since not all of the raw crystals actually show that radiant yellow when they are found, some of the stones first have to submit to a period spent in the oven at approximately 700 degrees Celcius. Without this treatment, the color would have a slight brownish tinge. The treatment only brings about the desired result because Tourmalines typically display different colors and different color intensities in different directions. By heat treatment, the Tourmaline's second color , in this case a light brown, is also transforemed into the coveted radiant yellow. This is a kind of treatment customarily undertaken with many gemstones, the result of which is irreversible.

Large yellow Tourmalines are rare in Malawi too, the more so in view of the fact that some 1o% of the yield is actually of gemstone quality at all.. When cut, more than 95% of the stone weigh less one carat. However, the y have wonderful wearing qualities, for like all Tourmalines, the "Canary Yellow" beauties from Malawi have a good harness of 7.0 to 7.5 on the MOH's scale.

There is also something special that distinguishes these Gemstones from others, and that is their fine smell. It is an odour that the person wearing the stone will not notice, but the cutter will, while giving the new crystals their final shape is brought out to the best possible advantage. Experienced cutters are particularly fond of working on these gemstones, and say that these are the only gemstones that smell good. The explanation for the good smell - Tourmaline crystals are often embedded at the place where they are found in a black material which needs to be removed  before cutting begins. One day, apparently the owner of the Gemstone mine in Malawi discovered that the unwanted black material was easier to remove if the raw crystals were first boiled in water to which lemon juice was added.   Since then, the yellow Tourmaline crystals from Malawi have had not only the pleasant color of fresh lemon, but also their fragrance at least up to the moment when cutting begins.

AMETRINE

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Ametrine: Spinning Purple into Gold.

The Anahi Mine in Bolivia is the major world producer of Ametrine. The mine first became famous in the 17th century when a Spanish conquistador received it as a dowry when he married a princess from the Ayoreos tribe named Anahi. Ametrine was introduced to Europe through the conquistador's gift to the Spanish Queen.

Sometimes Amethyst and Citrine colors are found in the same crystal of Quartz.  These bi-color yellow and purple Quartz gemstones are called Ametrine.

With Ametrine, you can have both gem colors for the price of one! Ametrine is especially inexpensive when you consider that it comes from only one mine in the world.

Ametrine is most typically faceted in a rectangular shape with a 50/50 pairing of Amethyst and Citrine. Sometimes a checkerboard pattern of facets is added to the top to increase light reflection. Ametrine can also be cut to blend the two colors so that the resulting stoneis a mix of yellow, purple, and peach tones throughout the stone. Ametrine is also popular among artistic cutters and carvers who play with the colors, creating landscapes in the stone.

Ametrine is a very durable gemstone suited for a variety of jewelry uses. Most sizes and shapes are available but the color contrast is most pronounced in sizes over seven carats.